Using Japanese on a Mac
This site describes how to use Japanese on a Macintosh computer, particularly for people who use a Mac predominantly in English but also want to read, write, browse, and email in Japanese. This front page contains information on activating Japanese support in Mac OS: start by following the instructions below, then consult the other pages on the site for information on specific tasks and applications: email, web browsing, dictionary software, etc.
The instructions on this site are for Mac OS 10.8 (Mountain Lion), and you can use them with only slight changes to earlier versions of Mac OS X. (For significantly older systems, see the "Other Resources" page on this site.) If you are running Mac OS 10.9 (Mavericks), things will look slightly different, though you can probably still find your way around; I'll be updating the page soon for Mavericks.
Today using Japanese with the Mac is relatively seamless. Mac OS comes installed with support for reading and editing Japanese--in documents, in email, and on the web. If you receive Japanese email in Apple's Mail application or go to a Japanese web page in Safari, the Japanese will probably display correctly without your doing anything special or reading any further on this page. If this does not work smoothly, if you want to enable additional features in these programs, or if you want to input Japanese text (to create documents, do web searches, or send email in Japanese, for example), you'll need to take some extra steps. These are described below, and on the other pages of this site.
To enable input in Japanese (or other Asian languages), go to System Preferences from the Apple menu, click on the blue flag icon labeled Language and Text, then select the Input Sources tab. (In earlier versions of Mac OS, this preferences panel is called "International" and the tab is called "Input Menu.") Now scroll down and check the box next to Kotoeri, which is the name of the Japanese input method, and check Hiragana and Katakana under it. If you have a trackpad, you may also want to check "Traditional Chinese" and/or "Simplified Chinese," and the "Trackpad Handwriting" option under them. This will allow you to enter kanji characters by drawing them on the trackpad. Finally, click the checkbox next to "Show input menu in menu bar" at the bottom of the preferences pane. Click the images below to enlarge them and see what things should look like.
You can now select Hiragana or Katakana from the input menu (which now appears in the upper right of the menu bar) to enter Japanese text in almost any application. For more on how to enter Japanese text, see the page on Typing in Japanese elsewhere on this site.) If Hiragana or Katakana is already selected as the input method when you click on the menu, you'll get a longer menu with options specific to Kotoeri, including Kotoeri preferences and Kotoeri help.
Here's an optional tip: there is a keyboard shortcut to switch between languages without using this menu. It is Apple-space bar. You can switch between the last two input methods by pressing this key combination, and holding it down it brings up a menu in the center of the screen with input options you can cycle through. Unfortunately, it may not work, because the same shortcut is assigned to Spotlight. You can fix this conflict under System Preferences: click on Keyboard icon (Keyboard & Mouse in earlier systems) and select the Keyboard Shortcuts tab, then uncheck one of the conflicting shortcuts or reassign it. Later versions of Mac OS allow you to fix this under the Spotlight or International sections of System Preferences as well.
Do I need a Japanese Keyboard?
Most users (including native speakers) enter Japanese by typing the pronunciation in roman characters, so you do not need a special Japanese keyboard. If you have a Japanese a keyboard, it has a few extra keys you can take advantage of, as well as the option of dispensing with roman character input and having each key map to a specific kana character. Recently the online Apple store has had an option that lets you select a Japanese keyboard as an option when you buy a new Mac.
If you are using a Japanese keyboard or laptop, select the correct keyboard layout and rômaji or kana input method in the kotoeri preferences, which you can access from the menu shown above.
To enable Japanese menus in the Finder and other applications, go to System Preferences under the Apple menu, then select the icon for the Language & Text preferences pane, and then the Languages tab. Add Japanese to the list of languages, if it does not appear there already. If you drag Japanese above English in the list, the finder and many other applications will open next time with Japanese menus. Even if you do not want Japanese menus, make sure Japanese appears somewhere in your list of languages. Just having it there unlocks Japanese features in certain software, like Japanese encoding in Apple's Mail application.
You can also set the menu language of specific applications individually. Many (though not all) applications have menus in different languages built in--you just have to activate the Japanese ones. You used to be able to set this for each application using the "Get Info" command in the Finder, but for more recent versions of Mac OS there is a third-party application called Language Switcher.
Microsoft Office applications have special features for dealing with Japanese, but they are not activated by default. To activate these features you need to use a program called the Microsoft Language Register. (It should be in the Microsoft Office folder under "Additional Tools"; if not, look for it on your Office install CD). Different versions of the Language Register work slightly differently; just open the application and it will give you instructions. Once these features are enabled, the applications will have new menu and preferences options for working with Japanese.